Canine Diabetes Wiki
Leo Neutral [1]
R, Neutral by Nordisk
U40, U100 none
Action in dogs:
  • onset 30-60 minutes,
  • peak 2-4h,
  • duration 6-8h
Line: Nordisk
Also known as: Pork Actrapid, Pork R, pork neutral
Similar to: Betasint Porcine Corriente
Hypurin Porcine Neutral, [2] Hypurin Pork Regular
Maxirapid CHO, Iletin II R
Use and Handling:
Shelf Life: 36 months Type: soluble, clear
When Opened: 6 weeks room temp.
In Pen: N/A
Notes: Protect from light and heat
Do Not Freeze,
May be used intravenously
May be used intramuscularly
Human Activity Profiles Various Insulins

Time activity profile for Pork Actrapid.

Note that some countries have the brand name in U40 strength.

A short-acting, soluble R/neutral pork insulin which was made by Nordisk. [1][3][4]

Like all R or neutral insulins, nothing is added (suspensions) to alter the insulin's action or speed .[5]

It is comparable to Iletin II R, [6] formerly made by Eli Lilly, Hypurin Porcine Neutral/Hypurin Pork Regular by CP Pharma, [7][8][9][10] Betasint Porcine Corriente by Beta Laboratorios and Maxirapid CHO by Polfa Tarchomin.

Novo Nordisk no longer offered Pork Actrapid after December 2007[11][12][13][14][15] according to the Novo Nordisk Australasia Home Page, [16] it was discontinued there by December, 2006. It's now necessary to use Hypurin Porcine Neutral from CP Pharma. [17]

A short-acting, soluble, non-suspended insulin produced from r-DNA/GE/GM, bovine, or porcine sources. From 1921 to the 1930's when PZI was developed, R was the only kind of insulin available.

While both R/neutral and semilente insulins are considered fast-acting, they differ in a few ways. As above, there's no suspension or buffer [18] in R/neutral; it's totally dissolved and soluble, meaning it can safely be used intravenously. [19]

The very small insulin particles in semilente insulin are suspended by zinc. [18] Semilente is cloudy, has an acetate buffer and cannot be used intravenously.

R/Neutral insulin cannot be reliably mixed with Lente or Ultralente insulins. [20][21] Semilente can; the ratio of 3 parts semilente insulin to 7 parts ultralente insulin produces Lente insulin. [18]

R/Neutral Insulins[]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Montgomery, DAD. Modern Insulin and Insulin Therapy. Royal Victoria Hospital-Belfast.
  2. Response to Withdrawal of Novo Porcine Insulin Range. CP/Wockhardt UK.
  3. Pork Actrapid Patient Information.
  4. Patient Information Leaflet-Pork Actrapid. Novo Nordisk.
  5. Humulin R. Eli Lilly.
  6. Iletin II R Discontinuation Notice. US-FDA (July 2005).
  7. Hypurin Porcine Neutral. Wockhardt.
  8. Hypurin Porcine Neutral Patient Information.
  9. Prescribing Novo Animal Insulins.
  10. Prescribing Porcine Insulin.
  11. Novo Pork Insulins Discontinuation Information. Diabetes UK.
  12. Novo Nordisk Discontinues Animal Insulins Worldwide. Forum Insulin Schweiz.
  13. Pork Insulin Discontinuation Notice. NovoNordisk UK.
  14. Insulin Discontinuations-UK. NHS.
  15. Novo Pork Insulin Discontinuations. Novo Nordisk (2007).
  16. Novo Nordisk Australasia Home Page--Novo Pork Insulin Discontinuation. Novo Nordisk.
  17. Wockhardt/Hypurin Insulin Substitutes. NHS.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 DeRuiter, Jack. Insulin Preparations-Regular Insulin. Auburn University. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Auburn" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Auburn" defined multiple times with different content
  19. Maddison, Jill E.,Page, Stephen W.,Church, David B. (2008). Small Animal Clinical Pharmacology. Saunders Ltd..
  20. Deckert, T. (1980). Intermediate-Acting Insulin Preparations: NPH (Isophane) & Lente. Diabetes Care.
    Note--in 1980, there were no r-DNA/GE/GM  insulins
  21. Resource Guide. American Diabetes Association (2005).

More Information[]

Related pages
Hypurin pork r
Pork Actrapid
Betasint Porcine Corriente
Hypurin Porcine Neutral
Pork Actrapid
Maxirapid CHO