Canine Diabetes Wiki

Apidra is a brand name for insulin glulisine, [1] a fast-acting human analog manufactured by Aventis. It is a soluble insulin and can be used intravenously for diabetic emergencies such as DKA. Apidra has been found to be equipotent (equally potent) to R/neutral R-DNA/GE/GM insulin when administered intravenously.

Given subcutaneously in normal injection form, Apidra has a more rapid onset and shorter duration than R human insulin. [2]

Technical details[]

Insulin hex di mon

Insulin hexamers must break down into dimers and monomers to be absorbed. [3].


Alterations in the human insulin chains to produce Apidra (Glulisine), Novolog/NovoRapid (Aspart), and Humalog (Lispro)--all rapid-acting analog insulins.

The alterations to the human insulin molecule that produces insulin Glulisine are all to the B insulin chain; position B-#3, which is normally amino acid asparagine is replaced with lysine and the lysine amino acid which is normally found at position B-#29 is replaced by glutamic acid. [4]. Making substitutions at these positions on the B insulin chain, inhibits hexamer formation [5]

Since insulin in hexamer form must break down into dimers and monomers to become active, inhibiting the molecule's natural tendency to form hexamers by self-association, means better, faster absorption, more rapid onset, peak and shorter duration. Apidra [6] may be diluted for all uses except in insulin pumps. It may be mixed in the same syringe with NPH/isophane insulin only.

There is no clinical data regarding same syringe mixing of Apidra and any other insulin preparations in humans, but testing conducted in dogs indicates a slower onset when mixed with NPH/isophane insulin. Used on its own, Apidra displayed an earlier onset with them. [5] Antibody formation in the dog was noted.

Dr. Nelson of University of California-Davis said in his lecture at the Ohio State Endocrinology Symposium in 2006 that if the short-acting analog insulins have any role in feline and canine diabetes, it is not yet determined. [7]

Analog Insulins: amino acid sequences[]

Analog Insulins: pharmacokinetics[]

These are human activity profiles.


  1. Insulin glulisine-Apidra. Revolution Health.
  2. Patient Information-Apidra.
  3. Hanas, Ragnar (1999). Insulin Dependent Diabetes-Page 5. ChildrenWithDiabetes.
  4. Prescribing Information-Apidra. Sanofi-Aventis.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Scientific Discussion-Insulin Glulisine-Apidra-Page 1. EMEA.
  6. Apidra Information. Sanofi-Aventis.
  7. Nelson, Richard (2006). Selecting an Insulin for Treating Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs & Cats-Page 39. OSU Endocrinology Symposium.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Guide to Insulin Preparations. Pharmacy Times.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Insulin Pharmacology.
  10. Hypurin Protamine Zinc. NetDoctor UK.